rud is another ancient musical instrument that was
mentioned in the works of Azerbaijani medieval classical
poets. In his "Iskandarname", Nizami described
it in the following way:
help me, play on the rud,
Wake me up from a ruthless dream.
Maybe the sound of the rud, rippling as the brook
Will extinguish the thirst of my flaring soul.
information about the rud can be found in the works
of Gatran Tabrizi (9th century). In his treatise,
Abdulgadir Maraghayi mentions the rud: "Rud hani:
Up to half of its surface is covered by skin, and
frets are fastened to it; it has four strings. It
is played like an ancient ud."
State Museum of
The rud, considered
as mainly a palace musical instrument, was used in
Azerbaijan up until the 16th-17th centuries. Researchers
have found out that the first samples of the rud were
made of pumpkin, and that the strings were made of
silk and animal gut. It's remarkable that its appearance
reminds one of a pumpkin.
differs from that of other string instruments. Fish
skin is pulled over half of the body's surface, and
the other part is made of pine. Primarily, the instrument
was played with the fingers; later it was played with
the help of a plectrum made of soft material. The
rud's body is made of mulberry wood and apricot wood,
the neck and head are made of nut wood, and the pegs
are made of pear wood. A total of 12 frets are fastened
to the instrument's fret-board. The timbre of its
sound is low.
The total length
of the instrument is 860 mm. The length of the body
is 495 mm, the width is 335 mm and the height is 1
70 mm. The length of the neck is 285 mm. The scale
of the rud ranges from the "mi" of the great
octave to the "si" of the second octave.